Reporting Sexual Assault: A Social Ecology Perspective (Criminal Justice: Recent Scholarship)

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Participants: Session Organizer Adia M. Harvey Wingfield, Washington University in St. Williams, Susquehanna University. Gentrification and the Contestation of Urban Space A large amount of sociological research interrogating the spatial dynamics of race and inequality focuses on the examination of the physical geography of racial residential segregation and the connection between differential resources and racially organized neighborhoods. In the past two decades sociologists have begun to examine a corresponding social process that complicates issues of segregation, race, and space—processes of gentrification; more specifically the movement of whites into historically African American neighborhoods and the issues these migration patterns raise related to space, resources, and white domination.

This Special Session examines racialized space in the context of gentrification processes and the corresponding contestation of geographical and institutional spaces and resources. From neighborhood spaces, to schools, to public accommodations, this panel examines how white domination and resistance from people of color characterizes processes of gentrification in the United States. Social Justice Implications of Mass Incarceration The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation in the world.

Moreover, the consequences of mass incarceration disproportionately affect poor people and women and men of color, such that mass incarceration has become a technology of reproduction of social hierarchies. Any discussion of social justice in the United States must interrogate mass incarceration as a technology of the state and its implications for race, class, and gender based inequalities. This session brings together scholars who evaluate the consequences of mass incarceration through different lenses and with different approaches in order to address this issue. Policing Black and Brown Bodies Issues of social justice and criminal justice processes are deeply connected in United States society.

In recent years sociologists have suggested that the criminal justice system, via the mechanism of militarized police practices and mass police surveillance, has operated as a fundamental mechanism of the state in the oppression of Black and Brown communities. In connection with the theme of social justice, this special session brings together experts who critically analyze the policing of Black and Brown bodies, the implications for the reproduction of white domination, and the implications for social equity and social justice.

Privatization of Prisons and Prison Labor The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation in the world and the consequences of mass incarceration disproportionately affect poor people and women and men of color, such that mass incarceration has become a technology of reproduction of social hierarchies. Discussions of social justice in the United States must interrogate mass incarceration as a technology of the state, and this move to privatization in the context of the broader prison industrial complex.

This session brings together scholars who evaluate these issues and consider the implications for our society. Simes, Boston University. Youth, Young Adults, and Homelessness As inequality in the United States continues to rise, and the social safety net continues to erode, the rates of homelessness are likely to increase. Youth and young adults who are homeless face particular challenges as they attempt to navigate their housing status. This special session brings together an interdisciplinary set of scholars and practitioners to discuss the characteristics and needs of this population and the major issues for scholars and practitioners moving forward.

Panelists and session participants will also dialogue about the best ways to bridge gaps between scholarly knowledge and practice. What is the place of qualitative data and methods when digital traces and large-scale administrative data track our every step? The surprising answer is that in the era of big data, qualitative research is more, not less important. Health Disparity This session focuses on the structural underpinnings of health disparities. The presenters discuss intersectional approaches to mental health, criminal justice contact in its multiple forms to population and health disparities, and the health associations of digitizing police brutality via video and audio recording equipment on mobile devices.

State Policies: Evasion, Implementation and Impact on Livelihood and Welfare of Refugees and Recent Migrants There are many international discussions about the frameworks to adequately represent the landscape of migration today. The scholars in this session are particularly interested in the contemporary relationships of states and migrants, including forced migrants.

Migration Protections and Justice Set against contemporary global trends of continuing inequalities within and across nations, this session attempts to examine a variety of migration practices, as well as social protections for migrants and coping mechanisms within contemporary transnational contexts. Contemporary and Enduring Violence This session will present some of the discussions and debates on contemporary violence. The panelists consider violence at many contexts and scales, from the violence experienced every day to the normalization of state sponsored violence.

Department of State. School Discipline Equal access to educational opportunity is a fundamental principle of modern democratic societies. This panel evaluates how school discipline is related to social justice in educational opportunity. Discipline is necessary to establish an environment conducive to meeting educational goals, but discipline that is perceived as unequal and overly punitive can counteract these goals. Recent scholarship has uncovered alarming disparities in school discipline in which the most socially vulnerable students e. Moreover, American public schools have increasingly relied on modes of discipline that are invasive, unyielding, and exclusionary.

This ethos has incorporated criminal justice techniques and personnel into schools, and resulted in consequences, such as suspension, that remove students from the learning environment. These forms of discipline can limit access to educational opportunities, and influence life trajectories. At the same time, school personnel are often faced with tough choices over how best to maintain order, safety, and a positive school climate. Panelists will discuss disparities in school punishment, contemporary punitive regimes in education, and the academic and social consequences of school punishment.

The panel will also discuss approaches to reimagine issues of safety, justice, and opportunity in relation to school discipline. Participants: Session Organizer Edward W. Religion and Contested Understandings of Social Justice Cosponsored by the Association for the Sociology of Religion How do different religious traditions draw on their symbolic and ideological resources to define, advance, and pursue social justice in the world?

Conversely, how do different movements who understand themselves to be working for social justice draw on religious traditions or cultural and symbolic resources drawn from them in order to frame, mobilize, and organize? This panel will explore these questions drawing on empirical work ethnographic, interpretive, historical, and other and theoretical frameworks whether sociological or theological to draw sharp parallels and distinctions between approaches to social justice, how the understandings behind them are contested, and how religious dynamics shape societal outcomes. Religion and Contested Understandings of Gender and Sexuality Cosponsored by the Association for the Sociology of Religion As traditional categories become ever more fluid, how are religious groups and movements responding in ways that either transform traditional understandings or create innovative practices that maintain aspects of tradition while concurrently moving toward transformation?

This panel will explore both tensions and transformational understandings of religious belonging and nonconforming gender and sexual identities. Participants: Session Organizer J. Sumerau, University of Tampa; Presider J. Sumerau, University of Tampa. Masculinity and Sexuality Renewed attention has been focused on contemporary masculinity in the current climate of intense focus on sexual-harassment and social misconduct concerning gender relations.

That attention has opened up questions and inquiries in sociology and related disciplines about toxic masculinity and the social misconduct of men. The papers in this session explore contemporary masculinity with the context of this current preoccupation. These presentations address questions such as how might new and relevant notions of healthy masculinity emerge, how might toxic masculinity be unpacked and confronted in scholarship, and how might these efforts truly affect broader social change aside from the creation of new laws increased legal intervention?


Participants: Session Organizer Alford A. ASA Funded Research on the Impact of Campus Carry Since a growing number of state legislatures have considered or passed campus carry laws over the past 10 years, the American Sociological Association recently funded three research studies to examine the impact of allowing concealed carry license holders to carry guns on college campuses. The purpose of this panel is to present the research findings from these groundbreaking studies.

In the first paper, using data collected before and one year after Georgia passed a campus carry law, McMahon-Howard, McCafferty, and Scherer discuss the impact that a campus carry law has on perceptions of safety, crime, and campus life activities among a sample of faculty, staff, and students at a large, public university in Georgia. In the second paper, using longitudinal data collected during the first and third years after the implementation of a new campus carry law at a large rural university in the western United States, DeAngelis and Benz discuss whether the impact of campus carry laws change over time for faculty, staff, and students.

In the third paper, using data collected at the beginning and end of a semester at a public university in Texas, Maloney, Newmyer, and Wagner discuss if and how new faculty and students change in knowledge and attitudes regarding campus carry over the course of the semester and possible contagion effects of faculty attitudes to students. While other scholars have focused solely on economic insecurity among the elderly, Carr widens the scope of analysis to include physical, emotional, and social inequalities.

Given the resurgent interest in inequality, Golden Years?

John F. MacLeod, Peter Grove, and David Farrington

Participants: Session Organizer Leslie S. Scholars have been conducting a growing number of studies on work organizations and labor market institutions in the advanced capitalist societies. Of particular concern are boundaries dividing scholars in such fields as industrial and employment relations, economic sociology, and comparative political economy.

This session brings together European and American scholars who are studying the organizational and institutional underpinnings of labor market segmentation, the better to understand the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion over time and across geographic areas. Theories of labor market segmentation were of course first developed in the United States, but by the late s had fallen out of favor among Americans.

By contrast, the concepts of economic dualism and labor market segmentation have come to find a ready audience among European scholars, who have sought to understand how and why a growing proportion of workers have been relegated to peripheral positions within the labor market. Current processes characterized by technological change and digitalization are often viewed as exacerbating divisions and inequality in society. This session will bring together leading scholars studying the structural roots of labor market segmentation, both in Europe and the USA, the better to yield a common understanding of economic trends remaking the boundaries of social and economic inequality in the advanced capitalist world.

Kinship often represents the traditional in the traditional-modern spectrum, an anachronistic remnant soon to be swept away by the forces of state and market, seen as the hallmarks of modernity. Sociology in particular less so history and anthropology has tended to oppose kinship and modernity.

The panel aims to challenge these conceptions by providing a different perspective on kinship and politics in the modern world. Our panelists contend that we need to expand the range of dominant theoretical frameworks if we are to make sense of developments in politics in the postcolonial world in the 20th and 21st centuries, as theories formulated primarily for the western world do not give us the necessary explanatory leverage. We all agree that we need to bring kinship to center stage.

Stressing the continued salience of extended kinship networks, we show how they have served as a source of solidarity, identity and trust, around which various forms of collective action and political mobilization can occur. We cover a range of countries including Lebanon, Pakistan, Syria and Tunisia. We address a range of topics from how leaders of kin groups negotiate the purview of the state, how women activists have relied on extended kinship, how extended kinship networks have transcended national borders in regard to political agency, and how they have entered into mobilization in protests.

This appears to have happened as after four months the conviction rate which is proportional to the active population is well below the prediction, continuing the initial trend. In any event the PPO programme appears to have been successful and the resulting conviction rate profile has a rational explanation in terms of the theories and models described in this book.

As part of the evaluation, Dawson and Cuppleditch set up a counterfactual sample of offenders based on Propensity Score Matching PSM to act as a control group.

NCJRS Abstract - National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Offenders were matched case by case with the PPO cohort sample, on several characteristics including gender, age, and detailed criminal history. Judging from their description, the matching procedures were rigorous. The monthly conviction rates of the PSM sample are plotted as the irregular line in Figure 8.

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However the evaluators were perplexed by the profile obtained. The PSM conviction rate profile was very p. In our view the problem has arisen due to the conditioning of the counterfactual sample. There is no mention of date of conviction in the matching criteria. From the graph we suspect that for the PSM offenders their last convictions prior to the start of the PPO selection period occurred evenly over the previous 12 months and that their inclusion in the sample was not conditional on a conviction during the PPO selection period. The number of active offenders would therefore be reduced by 6 per cent each month over the period from September up to, judging from the graph, possibly January The solid line, overlaying the PSM conviction profile, in Figure 8.

The rehabilitate and resettle component of the PPO programme contained some elements of offender treatment and our analysis above suggests that recidivism may have been reduced significantly. That programme contained a variety of interventions including drug treatment, close supervision, and assistance with resettlement and it is not clear which element or combination of elements were responsible for the observed results or indeed whether the reduction in recidivism would persist beyond the observation period. Notwithstanding these reservations the indications are encouraging and the reduction in the conviction rate and the apparent shortening of the residual career length suggest a permanent change.

A long term, up to 10 years, follow up of the PPO cohort and a more detailed analysis of recidivism and inter-conviction times would be needed to verify the effectiveness of the PPO programme. The PPO analysis above has provided a practical example of the way our theory can be used to explain observations which otherwise p. In the PPO programme example the theory provided a plausible counterfactual and was able to explain why the PSM sample produced an unhelpful control, which in the event is entirely consistent if the conditioning of the data is taken into account.

In any evaluation research it is very important to have a clear understanding of the processes involved and a well founded expectation against which to measure the outcome. In this section we will outline what we might expect from policy interventions aimed at influencing criminality, recidivism, rate of offending or rate of conviction. Perhaps the most important implication of our theory is that the criminal justice system does control crime. The vast majority of offenders cease offending because of the activities of the CJS. This means that changes to the CJS may lead to reduced or increased levels of crime.

However, perhaps the most effective way to reduce crime is to reduce criminality, ie to stop individuals becoming criminal in the first place. For each potential high-risk offender diverted completely from a life of crime by early intervention, an average of between 19 and 31 recorded crimes would be averted. For potential low-risk offenders an average of between 4 and 7 recorded crimes would be averted. For high-risk offenders the above estimates are probably very conservative; if unrecorded and unreported crimes are included the averages could be very much greater.

Overall approximately 5 per cent of the population fall into our high-risk categories and in Chapter 6 we showed that a significant proportion of the high-risk category could be identified from psychological characteristics. If early interventions were focused on these most vulnerable individuals a disproportionate 5 reduction in crime could be achieved.

Low-risk potential offenders would be more difficult to target as they appear to be similar, psychologically, to non-offenders and the bulk of non-standard list trivial offenders. Reducing the size of an offender category would result in a pro rata reduction in the crime committed by offenders in that category.

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Policies aimed at reducing recidivism can also have a significant and disproportionate impact on crime. Again this is particularly true for high-risk offenders. In the Appendix we show that overall, at any given time, about 55 per cent of crime is committed by p. Thus reducing recidivism only impacts on 45 per cent of future crime see Table A. We also show that crime is inversely proportional to the probability of desistance: thus reducing the recidivism probability for the high-risk group by 10 per cent, from 0.

In making these estimates we are assuming that offender treatment programmes are given to all high-risk offenders and that a 10 per cent recidivism reduction can be maintained. In practice, the results might be more modest.


The results would certainly be modest for low-risk offenders both because only 33 per cent, at most, of their crime would be affected by reducing their recidivism and because programmes aimed at first offenders in this group would be given to individuals of whom 60 per cent had already decided not to offend again. A 10 per cent reduction in the recidivism probability of low-risk offenders, from 0. Policies aimed at reducing opportunities for crime may well reduce crime overall but there is some possibility that crime may simply be displaced to areas where opportunity reduction measures are not implemented or to other types of crime.

On the other hand there is also evidence that the benefits of crime reduction measures may be diffused to neighbouring areas Painter and Farrington Making crime more difficult may also reduce the frequency of offending but is unlikely to cause desistance. This is because, as we have seen, offenders are versatile and according to our theory they will continue to offend until convicted at which point a constant proportion will desist.

Also, for opportunity reduction policies to impact on overall crime, we would require reductions in the offending rate to have no effect on the rate of conviction.

In particular if reducing the offending rate simply increases the inter-conviction time then criminal careers would also be lengthened and overall crime would remain the same. Conversely, over the observation period of the OI cohorts there was a consistent increase in recorded crime through to the early s but both criminality and conviction rates remained substantially constant. This suggests that, within reason, the two p. Opportunity reduction by target hardening and surveillance is often very effective at a local level but the impact on overall crime is difficult to assess. An offence is brought to justice if it results in a conviction, caution, fixed-penalty, or is taken into consideration in the determination of sentence.

If more offences are brought to justice as offences taken into consideration, overall crime would be unaffected. If additional offences result in a conviction, through improved policing and prosecution procedures, then overall crime is much more likely to be reduced.

Reporting Sexual Assault: A Social Ecology Perspective (Criminal Justice: Recent Scholarship)

The data available to the authors did not include any information on the subsequent criminal histories of cautioned offenders. An analysis along the lines of that in Chapters 2 and 3 of data from the Police National Computer, which includes cautioning information, would provide a very useful insight into the effectiveness of cautioning and its ability to divert offenders away from the courts.

Fixed penalties are not issued for the more serious p. Courts were encouraged to deal severely with offenders with the result that from about the prison population started to increase by about 8 per cent per year. The average prison population increased from 45, in to 66, in and over the same period according to the British Crime Survey crime reduced by around 20 per cent. Proponents of policies advocating the increased use of prison claim that the fall in crime was caused by the incapacitation of offenders and possibly the deterrent effect of the more severe punishment.

In Chapter 5 , in our discussion of various criminal career theories, we concluded that there was no support in the OI data for fixed career length or age-based desistance theories. Any long-term incapacitation effect relies on such theories being true. We return to this issue in greater detail in the Appendix where we show that the size of the active offender population, in the steady state, is independent of the size of the prison population. However, under the above conditions of year on year increases in the prison population we would predict a reduction in crime, but only of the order of 1.

Our theory also predicted a fall in crime of We cannot explain all of the reduction in BCS crime but our theory does explain well over half of it. The observed reduction in crime also suggests that more severe punishment increases deterrence but, from our analysis, those released from prison do not appear to have been deterred any more than those sentenced to community penalties.

It might of course be that general deterrence is increased but it would be very difficult to establish a causal link or even to quantify deterrence at all. We consider here some of the objections to the arguments we have presented so far: p. All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0. University Press Scholarship Online. Sign in. Not registered? Sign up. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search my Subject Specializations: Select Find in Worldcat.

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