All Nobel Prizes in Physics
The Goldilocks of fairy-tale fame knew something about porridge. It needed to be just right--neither too hot nor too cold. Same with furniture--neither too hard nor too soft. They know that the strands of our genetic code, if extended, would measure two meters, or about six feet. They also know that the strands fold into and move within the cell nucleus the size of about a hundredth of a millimeter. But they don't know how and in what state of matter this occurs, so they decided to check.
Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. The findings of their study, recently published in Nature Communications , suggest that the phase state of the genomic DNA is "just right"--a gel poised at the phase boundary between gel and sol, the solid-liquid phase transition.
Think of pudding, panna cotta--or even porridge. The consistency of these delectables must be just right to be ideally enjoyed. Just as the "sol-gel" phase transition, according to the scientists, seems just right for explaining the timing of genomic interactions that dictate gene expression and somatic recombination. Along with Dudko's former graduate student Yaojun Zhang, now a postdoctoral researcher at Princeton, and Murre's postdoctoral scholar Nimish Khanna, the team collected and analyzed data on DNA motion inside live mammalian B-cells from mice to understand how remote genomic interactions generate a diverse pool of antibodies by the adaptive immune system.
In mammals, such as rodents and humans, immunoglobin gene segments are arranged in groups of variable V , diversity D and joining J segments. Focusing spectrographs. Tangential incidence grating spectrographs. Dispersion and resolving power of spectrographs, Photographic and other methods of detection and measurement, Resolving power of detectors.
Energy level diagram. Dipole and forbidden lines, Satellite lines and their origin, Regular and irregular doublets.
Relative intensity of X-ray lines. Concept of point group. Influence of symmetry on physical properties; Electrical conductivity. Space groups, derivation of equivalent point positions with examples from triclinic systems , experimental determination of space group. Text and Reference books. X-ray crystallography : Azaroff 2. Crystallography for solid state physics : Verma and Srivastava 4. Solid state Physics : Kittel 5.
Crystal structure analysis : Buerger 7.
Elementary solid state physics : Omar 8. The physics of quasicrystals : Editors. Steinhardt and Ostulond 9. Satellite communication : Satellite communication, orbital satellite, geo-stationery satellite, orbital pattern, look angles, orbital spacing, satellite systems, link modules. Microwaves: K.
Gupta Wiley Ester New Delhi 4. Advanced electronics communication systems: Wayne Tomasi Phi Edn. Experimental setup for Raman spectroscopy, Application of IR and Raman spectroscopy in the structure determination of simple molecules. Cross sections — The fission reactors — Fusion — Thermonuclear reactions — Energy production in stars. Equation of betatron motion — Particle motion in dipole and quadrupole magnets —.
Stability of betatron motion — Sympletic condition — Effect of space — charge force on betatron motion. Synchrotron Motion : Longitudinal equation of motion — The synchrotron Hamiltonian — The synchrotron mapping equation — Evolution phase space ellipse. Principle and Design Details of Accelerators : Basic principle and design of accelerators viz. Object oriented systems development using unified modeling language: Bahrami A. McGraw Hill International 2. Booch Addison Wesley 2nd Edn 3.
An introduction to object oriented programming: Timpthy Budd 2nd Edn. Addison Wesley. Thermal analysis — Principle and applications of thermo-gravometric analysis — differential thermal analysis — differential scanning calorimetry. Photoelectron spectroscopy — Instrumentation — solid state surface studies — surface charging and calibration problems — Valence energy level studies — UV photoelectron spectra — X-ray photoelectron spectra — Auger electron spectroscopy.
Special experimental techniques for characterization of nano-structure materials. Shallow impurity states in semiconductors, localized lattice vibration states in solids, vacancies interstitials and color centers in ionic crystals. Andersons model for random system and electron localization, mobility edge, qualitative application of the idea to the amorphous semiconductors and hopping conduction.
White line, Chemical shifts of absorption edges. X-ray spectroscopy with synchrotron sources.
- Creating Passion-Driven Teams!
- Universal principles of phase transitions confirmed -- ScienceDaily;
- Applying the Goldilocks principle to DNA structure?
- A Portrait of the Visual Arts: The challenges of a New Era;
- The Origin of Feces: What Excrement Tells Us About Evolution, Ecology, and a Sustainable Society.
- A Foundation for Neonatal Care: a Multi-disciplinary Guide!
- Particle Physics;
X-ray optics and X-ray microscopy. Design of beam lines for synchrotron applications. Semester-III , M. Text and reference Books Bohr and B. Mottelson, Nuclear Structure, Vol. Shirokov Yudin, Nuclear Physics Vol. Brown and A. Jackson, Nucleon interaction, North-Holland, Amsterdam, Pal, Theory of nuclear structure, Affiliated East, Madras, Roy and B. Nigam, Nuclear physics, Wiley — Eastern Ltd. Electronic devices and circuit theory: Robort Boylested and L.
Malvino and D. Gaonkar Wiley-Estern M.
Alkins and R. Fridman Mossbauer spectroscopy- M. Akitt Structutal Methodsd in inorganic chemistry, E. Ebsworth, D. Rankin, S. Marmier and E. Enge , Introduction to nuclear physics, Addison-Wesley, S. Kapoor and V.
Haykins M. Raghvan: Materials Science, D. Kingery : Introduction to ceramics. Reedhil: Physical metallurgy.
Martin Start Sharger: Introductory materials. Sinnot: Solid state for engineers.
Kelly and Groves: Crystal and defects. Kittel: Solid state physics, Vth edition. Reference and Text Books: A. Compton and S. Allison: X-rays in Theory and Experiment G.
- Carbohydrate Chemistry Volume 10.
- Standard Model - Wikipedia;
- Principles of Phase Structures in Particle Physics.
- Particle accelerator?
Nielsen and D. Michette and C. Buckley: X-ray Science and Technology M. Blokhin: X-ray Spectroscopy B. Agarwal: X-ray Spectroscopy E.