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A Companion to the Historical Film. Discourse and Culture. The Future of History. The New History. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information.
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Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. Experiments in Rethinking History by. Choose Store.
Robert A. Rosenstone
Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Fourteen thought-provoking experimental pieces of historical writing tackle subjects as diverse as lynching in South Carolina, the life of an eighteenth-century Marquise, and a journey to a string of Pacific islands, and demonstrates how little-considered factors such as the impact of emotions, authorial subjectivity, the confining character of boundaries, and even a sense of boredom with conventional historical writing practices, can intrude on historical practice This text works as a Reader companion alongside the Routledge best-seller Rethinking History and provides students with an innovative, engaging and easy-to-read research tool to enhance all history-related course studies.
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Professor of History, Emeritus
Would you like us to take another look at this review? Within weeks, these shocking findings had hit the press and the study quickly became a staple of social science classes around the country. The young professor in change of the experiment, Philip Zimbardo, became a star witness in congressional testimony on issues ranging from American prison riots to the torture of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. The lesson, reflected in countless lectures, textbooks and several feature length movies about the study seemed clear: people slip naturally into social roles—affirming the power of the situation.
Alongside the work on obedience to authorities by Stanley Milgram, these conclusions have played a key role in shaping public understanding of the psychology of tyranny and evil for the past half century. But brand-new evidence from the archives has cast this classic study in a fresh light. As a result, scholars were finally able to listen to audio tapes of the prisoners receiving instructions from the experimenters.
These materials suggest a shockingly different explanation for the vicious behavior in the original experiment. This is where we noticed new evidence that the superintendent in the prison used a form of "identity leadership. For instance, the warden used collective pronouns 57 times during the short conversation or once every 30 words to cultivate a sense of shared identity with the guard—centered around toughness towards the prisoners.
Rethinking Experimental Designs for Field Evaluations - IEEE Journals & Magazine
This is the same language that politicians who win elections are far more likely to use using them once every 79 words than losing candidates using them only once every words. The superintendent then framed toughness towards prisoners as necessary for the achievement of a virtuous shared goal to help revolutionize the prison system. So that we can, we can get on the media and, um, and, and into press with it. But you do not need to take our word for it.
The audio tape we quoted can be accessed directly online. For the first time, people can be flies on the wall to learn what happened behind the scenes in one of the most famous experiments in psychology. The day before the experiment began, the research team held an orientation for the guards in which they communicated expectations for hostility towards the prisoners.
Bartels showed a completely new set of participants this same script almost 50 years later and found that people expected hostile and oppressive behaviour from Zimbardo and assumed it was expected from themselves, as guards. Thus, the language of the leadership team clearly sanctioned abuse among the guards.
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Together, this new evidence suggests that adopting a role or entering a system of brutality is not sufficient to produce cruel behavior. This is how leaders throughout history have validated cruelty to minorities or immigrants—by signalling that these are out-group members and that the ends justify the means.
The actions and language of leaders matter.